At the beginning of the XX century, cars were produced in dozens of different bodies. There were versions with wooden rectangular «sheds» of planks mounted on standard chassis and swinging open collars at the back, or with fabric roofs, as well as elegant open cabins, like carriages and other frills. Now there are fewer of them, but the names have remained, and car companies sometimes continue to market custom designs that are given names from the past. What do they mean?
Everyone knows the name of the limousine. Even a student can say that this is a luxury car that is found in the parks of the first persons of the state. Often this name is applied to cars that are driven with a personal driver. However, not every long sedan can be considered a limousine. According to the international typology of bodies, a limousine is a top-class closed passenger car based on a sedan with an extended wheelbase and a fenced-off passenger cabin. Such a partition is important because it allows you to talk about business without informing the driver.
Soviet motorists are well aware of some domestic models with this name. «Volga» in the station wagon was called Combi, «Moskvich» IZH-2125 also received this name. Meanwhile, since the time of wooden carriages, this word means anybody with a door at the back. Therefore, combi can include not only cars but also commercial “heels” on their chassis.
The sedan, in which the trunk lid opens with the rear window and does not have a transverse strut, is now called the liftback. Literally from English, the term is translated as a rising ass, and perfectly describes the functional purpose of the body. It is very convenient to load things into such a machine, which is why elevators are becoming increasingly popular in the world.
For the first time, motorists will learn about this type of body from computer games or from motorsport magazines. A roadster is now called sports cars with two seats. Instead of a roof, it has a soft folding top. However, in the 30s of the last century, it was the cheapest type of body in the model line of companies, because it allowed saving metal on the roof racks. Two seats instead of four were not a sign of sportiness, but rather loneliness and boredom. In the US, these cars were bought by widows or single women.
Initially, the so-called light four-wheel spring crew without doors and with a convertible top. He harnessed a pair or four horses and was very popular in Europe and in Russia. In the automotive era, this term began to be applied to very large convertibles with two rows of full seats for five to six seats and a soft folding roof. Chaise saw every Russian at least once admiring the parade on Red Square. The parade commander and the Minister of Defense ride them in cobblestones.
This body type is now forgotten, but in some concept cars, it is still used. Londo was originally a comfortable women’s carton springs with a soft folding top and wooden doors locked with a lock. In such a carriage, Prince William and Kate Middleton went to the wedding.
In the automotive industry, londos are called a body type that involves a folding roof over the passenger row of seats. Moreover, the car must have full doors and windows. Lando’s body was used in the first Muscovites to save steel. Some cars had a tarp roof, and it could be rolled up.
This type of car body was invented recently and is used exclusively in the Porsche 911 Targa. This is a kind of sports 2-seater roadster with a rigidly fixed windshield that can carry a high load in conjunction with the tubular frame at the back of the seats, which protects the driver and passenger from injuries when capsizing. Moreover, the back of the frame also has glass in the frame. The metal roof can be easily removed from the machine manually and stored separately from the machine.
This is one of the fastest two-seater sports bodies, used mainly for circuit racing. Unlike the roadster, the upper edge of the car’s windshield is much lower than the pilot’s eyes, which is protected from the wind by glasses or a closed helmet. The ancestor of the spiders was the Porsche 550, which, thanks to the low glass, was able to pass under a closed barrier at the railway crossing in the Mille Miglia rally races in 1954, which brought him victory. ©